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1g1 – Glossary A-M

Page history last edited by Sujith Prathap 11 years, 6 months ago

Puzzled by PQ? Thrown by 3G? Nonplussed by nVidia?

Here's hoping our handy Glossary can set you straight, like a bridge over troubled water.

Glossary Project Lead: 7e10 – Sujith Prathap

NB: See the Project Conversation below the Glossary Table for formatting conventions.




Glossary Table

 

 Term  Expansion  Explanation More Info Links
NI FAQ Wiki
External

3G

3rd Generation


3G is a standard for mobile phones and mobile telecommunications services. Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment.

 

ADAM optionally comes equipped with built-in 3G mobile broadband capability. At time of order you must select a frequency range. 850 MHz or 900 MHz.

2i – Communication

3G

on Wikipedia

802.11

IEEE 802.11 Standard

 

IEEE 802.11 is a set of standards carrying out wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 2.4, 3.6 and 5 GHz frequency bands, created and maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

  • 802.11b maximum raw data rate of 11 Mbit/s 
  • 802.11g maximum raw data rate of 54 Mbit/s
  • 802.11n maximum raw data rate of 600 Mbit/s

 

ADAM comes equipped with 802.11 b/g/n radio for Wi-Fi connectivity.

2i – Communication

802.11

on Wikipedia

.APK

Android PacKage file

   

 

An .APK file extension denotes an Android PacKage file. This file format is used for the distribution and installation of bundled components onto the Android mobile device platform.

 

ADAM can install Android apps from .APK files with its Sniffer file-browsing app.

Am I allowed to install 3rd-party applications by sideloading .APK files?

on 3c3 – Sniffer

APK (file format)

on Wikipedia

AMOLED

Active Matrix Organic Light

Emitting Diode

 



Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diodes are a new type of display which uses organic molecules to generate colored lights instead of inorganic compounds used in conventional LEDs. AMOLED displays don't require a backlight. As of 07 Jan 11, AMOLED screens have been used in mobile phones from Dell, Google, HTC, Nokia, and Samsung, but not in any tablet computers.

 

• AMOLED display technology is an alternative to the LCD and Pixel Qi screens available on ADAM.

2e – Display

AMOLED

on Wikipedia

Android

Android operating system

Android is an operating system for mobile devices, based upon a modified version of the Linux kernel.    Google and other members of the Open Handset Alliance collaborated to develop and release Android to the world.

 

ADAM runs the Android operating system, with a custom user interface called Eden on top.

3a – All about Eden and Android

Android

on Wikipedia

Android Gingerbread

Android 2.3 (Gingerbread) operating system

Android version 2.3 is also known as Gingerbread.

 

ADAM  ships with a customized version of the Android 2.3 (Gingerbread) operating system. 

3a – All about Eden and Android  

Android Gingerbread

on Android Developers

Android Honeycomb

Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) operating system

 

Android version 3.0, also known as Honeycomb, is the next version of the Android platform, designed from the ground up for devices with larger screen sizes, particularly tablets.

 

• ADAM will run Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) when it is released in mid-2011.

3a – All about Eden and Android 
 

A Sneak Peek of Android 3.0, Honeycomb

on Google Mobile Blog

Android Market

Android Market app store

Android Market is an online app store developed by Google for Android devices. An app called "Market" is preinstalled on most Android devices and allows users to browse and download apps published by third-party developers, hosted on Android Market.

• Until the release of Android 3.0 (Honeycomb), which will properly address the need for tablet-savvy apps, ADAM will not officially support the phone-centric Android Market, although ADAM can install Android apps from .APK files by sideloading with its Sniffer file-browsing app. ADAM has its own app store called Genesis.

Does ADAM come with access to the Android Market?

on 3a – All about Eden and Android

Android Market

on Wikipedia

Android.com - Market

official website

App

Application Program


App refers to a program downloaded and installed on a device (eg: ADAM). Apps are developed to perform a specific task. Apps are usually downloaded from an App Store, but can also be sideloaded.

 

• ADAM comes with a wide range of stock apps pre-installed, and can install third-party apps by sideloading their .APK files using its Sniffer file-browsing app.

3c – Stock Applications

6 – THIRD-PARTY GEAR

Application software

on Wikipedia

App Store

Application Store

An App Store is an online location where apps can be downloaded and installed on a computing device.

Android devices can access Android apps from the Android Market app store.

 

ADAM has its own app store called Genesis.

 

What is Genesis?

on 3a – All about Eden and Android

App Store

on Wikipedia

Android Market

on Wikipedia

Genesis

at Notion Ink

ARM

Advanced RISC Machine

Acorn RISC Machine


The ARM is a 32-bit reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by ARM Holdings, a British technology company from Cambridge, England, UK. The ARM architecture is the most widely used 32-bit ISA in terms of numbers of CPUs produced.

 

ADAM is powered by twin ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore CPUs on its nVidia Tegra2 system-on-a-chip processor.

2b – System-on-Chip

ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore

on Wikipedia

ARM Holdings

on Wikipedia

AWE

ADAM Web Experience

• Once you experience ADAM, you too shall be in AWE.

It's been called AWEsome by reviewers. 

3c5 – Web Browser  

Introducing Eden – V The Browser

on Rohan's NI Blog

BT

Bluetooth


Bluetooth is a proprietary wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short wavelength radio transmissions) from fixed and mobile devices, creating Personal Area Networks (PANs) with high levels of security.

 

ADAM ships with Bluetooth 2.1 + Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) which makes pairing easy, lowers power consumption and has improved security.

2i – Communication

Bluetooth

on Wikipedia

Canvas

Canvas Image Software

Canvas is the graphic app included with the ADAM, combining painting and drawing tools.

3c10 – Canvas Introducing Eden – IV

on Rohan's NI Blog, including video of Wall-e being drawn using Canvas


 

CEO

Chief Executive Officer


A Chief Executive Officer is the highest-ranking corporate officer (executive) or administrator in charge of total management of an organisation.

 

Rohan Shravan (left) is the CEO of Notion Ink, the enterprise behind ADAM.

Who are Notion Ink?

on 1 – NOTION INK, COMPANY and COMMUNITY

Chief executive officer on Wikipedia

Chrome OS

Google Chrome operating system

Google Chrome OS is a forthcoming Linux operating system, based on Ubuntu and designed by Google to work exclusively with web applications. The user interface takes a minimalist approach, resembling that of the Chrome web browser. Because Google Chrome OS is aimed at users who spend most of their computer time on the Internet, the only application on the device will be a browser incorporating a media player. The expected launch date: early 2011 to mid-2011.

 

• Notion Ink initially announced the capability of running Android, ChromeOS and Ubuntu on ADAM; but as of December 2010, there is only an Android version available, with the custom Eden user interface built on top. There is speculation[S] that ADAM may support Chrome OS in the future. 

Which OS-es does ADAM support?

on 3a – All about Eden and Android

1f – OS Alternatives

 

Google Chrome OS

on Wikipedia

CPU

Central Processing Unit


The CPU lies at the heart of a computer system, and takes care of all processing tasks. It handles the computer's arithmetic, logic and input/output operations.

 

ADAM has twin ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore CPUs on its nVidia Tegra2 system-on-a-chip processor (left - click to enlarge).

2b – System-on-Chip

Central processing unit

on Wikipedia

DBMS

Data Base Management System 


A Data Base Management System is a set of applications which specialize in storing and retrieving data records from one or more data repositories (bases). 

Is there a DBMS solution?

on 3c2 – Office Suite

Database management system

on Wikipedia

DDR2

Double Data Rate 2 Memory

 

DDR2 is a memory chip design which allows for a higher bus speed and requires lower power by running the internal clock at half the speed of the data bus. 

 

• ADAM ships with 1GB of DDR2 RAM.

2c – Memory and Storage

DDR2

on Wikipedia

DHL

Dalsey, Hillblom and Lynn

 

 

Deutsche Post DHL is a shipping company in international express, air and ocean freight, road and rail transportation, contract logistics and international mail services. A global network composed of more than 220 countries and territories and 300,000 employees worldwide offers customers superior service quality and local knowledge to satisfy their supply chain requirements.

 

Notion Ink ships ADAM worldwide through DHL.

4 – PRE-ORDERS, LAUNCH and ORDERING

DHL Tracking

official website

DOA

Dead On Arrival

Dead On Arrival refers to an electronic device that arrives either broken or non-functional on initial delivery of the device.

 

ADAM DOA procedures are detailed in Notion Ink's Cancellation, Return and Refund Policy (caution: PDF link) document

5 – WARRANTY and REPAIR

Dead on arrival

on Wikipedia

DRM

Digital rights management

Digital rights management is a term for access control technologies that can be used by hardware manufacturers, publishers, copyright  holders and individuals to limit the usage of digital content and devices. The use of digital rights management is controversial: proponents argue it is needed by copyright holders to prevent unauthorized duplication of their work, while some opponents, such as the Free Software Foundation (through its Defective By Design campaign), maintain that the use of the word "rights" is misleading and suggest that people instead use the term digital restrictions management.

Will the Music Player app be able to play DRM protected content?

on 3c7 – Music Player

Digital rights management

on Wikipedia

EAP

Early Adopter Program

Notion Ink's Early Adopter Program is a scheme where people applied to get an ADAM before its official launch in order to develop apps or test the device. There were two successive groups, EAP1 and EAP2.

none so far 

EAP Resigtration

at Notion Ink

Welcome On Board! :)

on Rohan's NI Blog

Eden

Eden user interface


In the scripture of the Abrahamic religions, Eden is the mythical setting for the origin of humankind.

 

• On ADAM, the Eden user interface sits on top of the underlying Android mobile operating system, mediating the user experience. Eden's Panel Engine delivers the visual metaphor for multitasking (left – click to enlarge).

3a – All about Eden and Android

Week-End Special Part IV – The Eden!

on Rohan's NI Blog

EDGE

Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution

EDGE is a digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates as a backward-compatible extension of GSM on 3G networks.

 

• ADAM supports EDGE communication.

2i – Communication

EDGE

on Wikipedia

EDR

Enhanced Data Rate

Used in the context of Bluetooth, Enhanced Data Rate refers to the speed of transfer of data using Bluetooth. It has found a very significant number of applications, particularly in areas such as connecting mobile or cell phones to hands-free headsets.

 

• ADAM ships with Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR which makes pairing easy, lowers power consumption and has improved security.

2i – Communication

Enhanced Data Rate

at Radio Electronics

eMMC

Embedded Multi-Media Card

eMMC describes an architecture comprised of an embedded storage solution with MMC interface, flash memory and controller, all in a small ball grid array (BGA) package.

 

ADAM ships with 8GB of eMMC flash memory storage.

2c – Memory and Storage

eMMC

on Wikipedia

FAQ

Frequently Asked Questions

An FAQ is a list/compilation of commonly asked questions and their answers, maintained to help people when doubts or questions arise.

 

• This very 'Notion Ink – Frequently Asked Questions Wiki' is a jolly good example of combining the ideas of a collaboratively maintained FAQ implemented as a Wiki.

7 – NI FAQ ADMINISTRATION

FAQ

on Wikipedia

FLASH

Flash Memory

http://www.itechnews.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/samsung-sun-ultra-endurance-flash-memory.jpg

Flash memory is a non-volatile computer storage chip that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. 2c – Memory and Storage

Flash Memory

on Wikipedia

FM

Frequency Modulation


Frequency Modulation conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its instantaneous frequency.

 

The ADAM has a FM radio built into it. (Still waiting confirmation as to whether it is just a FM receiver or if it can also broadcast FM signals to other FM radios.)

2h – Sensors

FM

on Wikipedia

Genesis

Genesis App Store

In the scripture of the Abrahamic religions, the Book of Genesis contains the ex nihilo creation myth, and other stories.

 

• ADAM-specific apps will be available through Notion Ink's own online applications store, called Genesis. Apps from Genesis are written with ADAM's Eden user interface in mind, and know how to make best use of its Panels, as well as having well designed full screen modes (at least in theory).

What is Genesis?

on 3a – All about Eden and Android

Genesis

at Notion Ink

GPS

Global Positioning System


The Global Positioning System is a space-based global navigation satellite system that provides atomic time information in all weather and at all times, anywhere on or near the Earth when and where there is an unobstructed line of sight to three or more GPS satellites.  A 4th satellite will provide altitude information. Location information is accurate to a circular error of probability of 30 meters. The US Department of Defence can alter this error at their will. GPS Details


ADAM has a GPS sensor, enabling geographical apps to pinpoint the ADAM's location in real time.

2h – Sensors

3c8 – Navigation and Maps

Global Positioning System

on Wikipedia

GPU

Graphics Processing Unit


A Graphics Processing Unit is a specialised microprocessor that offloads and accelerates graphics rendering from a computer's central processing unit.

 

ADAM's Tegra 250 system-on-a-chip contains an ultra low power GPU (left – click to enlarge).

ADAM's Tegra2 SoC in detail

on 2b – System-on-Chip

GPU

at Wikipedia

GSM

Global System for Mobile Communications


GSM is a pure digital wireless cellular based communications system, and is the world's most popular standard for mobile telephony systems. GSM differs from its predecessor technologies in that both signaling and speech channels are digital, and thus GSM is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. Release '99 introduced higher speed data transmission using Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE).

 

ADAM supports EDGE communication.

2i - Communications  

GSM

at Wikipedia

IMAP

Internet Message Access Protocol

The Internet Message Access Protocol is one of the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for email retrieval, the other being the Post Office Protocol (POP). Virtually all modern email clients and mail servers support both protocols as a means of transferring email messages from a server (see diagram, left – click to enlarge).

• ADAM’s email app Mail’d supports SMTP, POP, and IMAP.
3c1 – Mail'd   IMAP 

at Wikipedia

IPS

In Plane Switching


In Plane Switching is a method used to improve the viewing angles and colours of LCD panels.

 

• IPS display technology is an alternative to the LCD and Pixel Qi screens available on ADAM.

 

2e – Display

IPS

on Wikipedia

IPS Explained

at TFT Central

Kubuntu

Kubuntu operating system

 

Kubuntu operating system is the KDE version of the Ubuntu Linux operating system.

 

• Notion Ink initially announced the capability of running Android, ChromeOS and Ubuntu on ADAM; but as of December 2010, there is only an Android version available, with the custom Eden user interface built on top.

Which OS-es does ADAM support?

on 3a – All about Eden and Android

1f – OS Alternatives

Kubuntu

on Wikipedia

Kubuntu

official website

LCD

Liquid Crystal Display


A Liquid Crystal Display uses the light polarization properties of liquid crystals in an electric field to form images on a screen. LCDs use various construction variations to maximize the visual appearance of data. Some versions use Twisted Nematic Displays (TND), Thin Film Transistors (TFT), and colour filters.

 

One of ADAM's two screen variants uses a 10.1 inch, 16:9 format, colour TFT-LCD panel (while the other uses a 10.1 inch, 16:9 format, colour Pixel Qi transflective sunlight readable display).

2e – Display

Liquid crystal display

on Wikipedia

Leaf

The Leaves of Eden

• In ADAM's Eden user interface, a Leaf is synonymous with a Panel – see Panels for more info. 3b – The Panels of Eden

Week-End Special Part IV – The Eden!

on Rohan's NI Blog

Mail'd

Mail'd email app

• Mail'd is the ADAM app for managing email accounts. 3c1 – Mail'd Introducing Eden – II 

on Rohan's NI Blog, including video

microSD

Micro Secure Digital memory card

microSD is the smallest memory card available commercially; at 15 × 11 × 1 mm (about the size of a fingernail), it is less than one eight (1/8) the size of a standard-sized SD card. microSD cards are currently available in capacities from 64 MB to 2 GB.

 

• ADAM has a microSD slot on the bottom edge when held in landscape mode.

2c – Memory and Storage

microSD

on Wikipedia

microSD

at SD Association

microSDHC

Micro Secure Digital High Capacity memory card

microSDHC (Secure Digital High Capacity, SD 2.0) is an extension of the SD standard which increases card's storage capacity up to 32 GB.

 

• ADAM can use microSDHC memory cards.

2c – Memory and Storage

microSD

on Wikipedia

microSDHC

at SD Association

MMI

Man Machine Interface

 

The user interface includes hardware (physical) and software (logical) components. User interfaces exist for various systems, and provide a means of:

  • Input, allowing the users to manipulate a system, and/or
  • Output, allowing the system to indicate the effects of the users' manipulation.
 

MMI Design

on Rohan's NI Blog

Multi-touch

Multi-touch touchscreen

On touchscreen displays, multi-touch refers to the ability to simultaneously register three or more distinct positions of input touches. A multi-touch touchscreen enables a user interface to support multi-touch gestures, such as pinch-to-zoom and multi-finger swipes.

• ADAM’s display is a multi-touch touchscreen. Its Eden user interface, and the underlying Android operating system, both support multi-touch gestures.
2e – Display   Multi-touch 

on Wikipedia

Multi-touch gestures

on Wikipedia

 


Quick Reference: Glossary Terms - a Table of Contents

 

 

Glossary Terms:


 


Project Conversation

  • Good start, Sujith. I've tabled a formatting improvement, since the [ Table ∇ ] pull-down menu on the editing toolbar makes working with tables quick-&-easy, and tabulation makes glossaries easy to read. Gotta include 3G and nVidia since they're in the intro line! – dalinian 16:25 01 Jan 11
  • Placeholders in RedBoldItalicCamelCase need replacing with appropriate content. – dalinian 22:15 01 Jan 11
  • Systematising Revision 1

    • Term column – text only 

      • items are tagged as 'Heading 4' – from the [ Format ] pull-down menu on the EDIT toolbar; this enables them to be hyperlinked to from anywhere in the Wiki, including inside the glossary table's Explanation column
      • items are Bold and in text colour 'Black' – top left on the text colour pull-down menu on the EDIT toolbar
    •  Expansion column – text and microGraphics

      • items are Bold and expand on the item in the Term column
      • each item has a microGraphic (200px wide max), which optionally links to the full size graphic (with the addition of a ref in the Expansion column reading, eg: (left - click to enlarge)
    •  Explanation column – text only, cross-linking to Terms

      • Avoid "It is..." and begin with a sentence incorporating either the Term or the Expansion
        • eg – from EDGE: not "It is a digital mobile phone technology..." but instead "EDGE is a digital mobile phone technology..."
        • on its first occurrence, the the Term or the Expansion is in Bold
      • internal cross-linking – words in the body text of an Explanation column field that exist in the Glossary are cross-linked on their first occurrence in that field 
      • generalist entries have a last line in italics (preceded by a line space) beginning with a a bullet character • (alt+8 on OS X) that often begins with "• ADAM..." contextualising the Term with reference to ADAM or NI 
    • More Info Links columns – internal and external links

      • I've systematised hyperlinking by sub-dividing the More Info Links column into NI FAQ Wiki internal links and External link columns.
      • Supplementary text, eg: 'on Wikipedia' is in 8pt – from the [ Size ] pull-down menu on the editing toolbar
      • NB: all links in the 'External' link column should be set to 'Open in a new window' – see 'How To Make External Links open in a New Window/Tab' on 7d – Wiki Editing Tips-n-Tricks for an illustrated 'How To'
    • dalinian 17:15 05 Jan 11  
  • Subdividing the Glossary Table

    • The Glossary page is getting too large according to PB WORKS. They recommend splitting it into at least two pages but doesn't provide any instructions on how to perform that operation. - Lee cx650t 14 Jan 11
    • I’ve subdivided the page into 1g1 – Glossary A-M and 1g2 – Glossary N-Z . This means all links to the Glossary, and all ‘internal’ links inside the Explanation column need to be retargeted. I’ll begin doing this, and leave another message below when the task is complete. - dalinian 22:30 16 Jan 11

       

 


 

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